Access Email
National Library of Medicine (NLM) Recommended Formats for Bibliographic Citations
National Library of Medicine Recommended Formats for Bibliographic Citations

NLM citation style for books with an author(s)

A single author with first name given:

Lugalla, James B. Poverty, AIDS, and street children in East Africa. Lewiston (NY): Mellen Press; 2003. 416 p.
*Note 416p represents the total number of pages in the book.

A single author with initials only:

Howser, DJ. Dealing with genius. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2006. 32 p.

Two or more authors, but less than four:

Davies, Michelle; Lloyd, Douglas D.; Loew, Francis. Baby language. London: Unwin Paperbacks; 2006. 317 p.

More than three authors:

Howard, Alexander; Fine, Jacob; Howard, Peter A., et al. Breaking the funny bone. Boston (MA): Houghton Mifflin; 2005. 456 p.

NLM citation style for books with an editor(s)

Brunton, Lawrence; Lazo, June; Parker, Karl, editors. Goodman & Gilman's the pharmacological basis of therapeutics. 11th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2006. 1234 p.

NLM citation style for books without an author/editor:

Physicians' desk reference. 58th ed. Montvale (NJ): Thomson PDR; 2005. 3452 p.

NLM citation style for a book chapter:

O'Brien, Crystal. Drug addiction and drug abuse. In: Brunton, Lisa; Lazo, Janice; Parker, Keven, editors. Goodman & Gilman's the pharmacological basis of therapeutics. 11th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2006. p. 1126-29.

STAT!REF (as suggested by its publishers)

STAT!-Ref book chapter:

Falk, E. Fuster, "Atherogenesis and its determinants." Hurst's the Heart,http://online.statref.com/document.aspx?DocID=1030&StartDoc=1030&EndDoc=1346&FxID=67
&offset=7&level=1&State=False&Local=True&SessionID=17D9D7HKSOYVRVJL&
[Date accessed: 2005 Sept. 20] In STAT!Ref Online Electronic Medical Library [online database]. Jackson, WY, Teton Data Systems, 2004.

UP-TO-DATE (as suggested by its publishers)

Cite the UpToDate topic review as a chapter in a book titled UpToDate, edited by Burton D. Rose, published by UpToDate in Waltham, MA. As a CD-ROM or online service, there are no page numbers to cite. Since UpToDate is released every four months, the publication year for any topic review should be the current year.

Marcus, EN. Jellyfish stings. In: UpToDate, Rose, BD (Ed), UpToDate, Waltham, MA, 2005.

Nieman, LK, Kovacs, WJ. Pharmacological use of glucocorticoids. In: UpToDate, Rose, BD (Ed), UpToDate, Waltham, MA, 2005.

NLM citation style for journal articles:

From print sources:

One author:

Spencer, J. Physician, heal thyself - but not on your own please. Medical Education 2005 Feb; 89(2):548-9.

Two or more authors, but less than ten:

Salwachter R, Freischlag J, Sawyer R. The training needs and priorities of male and female surgeons and their trainees. J Am Coll Sur 2003 Apr;201(2):199-205.

More than ten authors:

Fukushima H, Cureoglu S, Schachern, P, Thomas RJ, Jeffery KJ, Harzbecker JH, Maggio LA, Iglesias BR, Manning PG, Oriel KA, et al. Cochlear changes in patients. Otolaryngology 2006 Feb; 133(3):100-6.

Internet articles based on a print source:

Thorpe KE, Florence C, Howard D.The rising prevalence of treated disease effects in private health insurance spending.Health Affairs [Internet]. 2005 [cited 2006 Feb 16]; 4(5):117-123. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=MImg&_imagekey=B6VF9-4HVNGMM-1-1 &_cdi=6005&_user=489277 &_orig=browse&_coverDate=02%2F28%2F2006 &_sk=999559997&view=c &wchp=dGLbVzz-zSkWA &md5=4c04943b8453821a7724332f6963ea61&ie=/sdarticle.pdf

NLM citation style for Websites:

Animal welfare Information Center [Internet]. Beltsvilled (MD): National Agricultural Library; [updated 2005 May 4; cited 2006 Feb 17]. Available from: http://nal.usda.gov.awic

Please note that the NLM makes available its guide to electronic bibliographic formats freely available on the web at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/pubs/formats/internet.pdf

Remember if you have any questions please feel free to contact a reference librarian or to consult the print National Library of Medicine Recommended Formats for Bibliographic Citation.